Spotlight on Boma National Park, South Sudan

Posted on August 22nd, 2014 in General by March Turnbull

Africa’s newest country only came into existence  in 2011.  It was a turbulent and violent place before independence from the north and fighting continues today.  It’s not a healthy recipe for environmental protection.

Yet, rumours of the one of the greatest terrestrial wildlife migrations have continued to excite everyone since Mike Fay, a National Geographic Explorer-in-Residence, wrote several years ago of seeing antelope herds hundreds of thousands strong.

The Boma National Park is in the south east of the country, close to the Ethiopia – Gambella National Park is just across the border.  

South Sudan protected areas


Boma is part of a massive migratory wildlife landscape which includes the Sudd, the massive swampland that absorbs so much of the energy of the White Nile. In the mid-1960s there were thought to be 80,000 elephants in the region alongside perhaps two million antelops.  Today there are almost certainly fewer than 5,000 elephants.  

Fast Facts (courtesy of the Wildlife Conservation Society):

  • The almost 200,000 km2-square-mile landscape which includes Boma National Park, is about the size of New York State.
  • Around 1.3 million antelopes migrate across the Boma-Jonglei Landscape taking advantage of seasonal changes in water and food supplies.
  • Among the world’s most important bird areas, the Sudd Swamp is a stopover site for birds migrating between Africa and Eurasia.

In May last year, the wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) and South Sudan’s wildlife authorities collared elephant from across the region to understand how the remain herds travel and suffer from poaching.  WCS is a critically important supporter of the Ministry of Wildlife Conservation & Tourism.

Regrettably, they were not able to dart and collar any animals in Boma National Park because of an attack on the park by armed militia who killed the park warden, three rangers and two policeman. Much of the infrastructure was also destroyed, along with almost 100% of the tourist trade.

Elephant collaring project in South Sudan, May 2013.  Credit: Paul Elkan / WCS

Elephant collaring project in South Sudan, May 2013. Credit: Paul Elkan / WCS

 Within the park there is continuing disagreement between local farmers and park rangers about planting and grazing.  That could be said for almost every major park on the continent.

What is different here is the scale of the agriculture.  The fabulous antelope migrations that Mike Fay wrote about a decade ago continue to wash through Boma – and beyond it into Ethiopia’s Gambella National Park.  

Farming in Gambella is taking a whole new direction.  Massive farming concessions, ecncomapssing hundreds of thousands of hectares have been granted to Saudi and Indian agribusiness firms. At least part of those concessions are apparently inside the national park.  Reports indicate that Gambella’s important Duma swamp is already being drained by farming activity. That directly threatens endangered Nile lechwe and the annual kob migrations that run right through this area.  It is difficult to see how to balance the competing needs of business and wildlife.

Boma National Park is struggling to protect its treasures.   It is part of one of the most extraordinary large mammal landscapes in the world.  Hidden for decades by civil war, known to very few outside the region, there is a very real risk of it disappearing before we really know very much about it.


The MAPA Project maps all of Africa’s major protected areas.  Click on the placemarker below for more information about Boma National Park or visit to see other African parks and conservation projects.

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Photo Sphere story: Awe and adventure in the Atlas

Posted on August 20th, 2014 in General,Spotlight on Parks by Alta

As part of our blog series on African protected areas, we will bring you at least one new “Photo Sphere” story every week. Photo Spheres are 360º panoramic images (think Street View) that can be shared on Google Maps, or with the Views community. Through the Street View partner programme, more and more remote places are making their way onto Google Street View. Where this is not (yet) the case, Photo Spheres allow the world an immersive view many of Africa’s protected areas.  You can see a selection of Photo Spheres taken in Africa’s protected areas on our interactive story map.

Proclaimed in 1942, Toubkal National Park is Morocco’s oldest (and highest) National park. It is not without its problems: poaching has decimated many animal populations, local livestock has overgrazed parts of the park, and erosion resulting from too many tourists hiking up the park’s multiple peaks is an ongoing concern. But it is hard to deny its splendor: not only does it provide some of the most spectacular natural scenery on earth, it is also culturally important, with many Berber communities calling the Imlil valley home.

At the foot of Jbel Toubkal, the highest peak in North Africa, lies the Kasbah du Toubkal, a trekking gateway to the Atlas, and a tranquil hideaway to visitors from all over the world. Originally the home of a local chief during Morocco’s French occupation, the Kasbah was restored in the early 1990s to a “Berber hospitality centre” by two English brothers and a local mountain guide.

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Spotlight on Ruaha National Park

Posted on August 19th, 2014 in General,Spotlight on Parks by March Turnbull

ranger gate sml

Tanzania’s wildlife estate is legendary but the vast majority of tourists visit the ‘Northern Circuit’, which includes the Serengeti and Ngogongoro Crater, rather than the south of the country.

Ruaha National Park  is in the south west,  about halfway between Dar es Salaam and the Zambian border.

There is always something to see as you drive along the river that gives Ruaha National Park its name.

There is always something to see as you drive along the river that gives Ruaha National Park its name.


It’s billed by its champions as the largest park in Africa and at 22,000,000 hectares it is is certainly one of them.  Perhaps more important is its context:  it is surrounded by a mosaic of protected areas including Rungwa, Kizigo and Muhezi Game Reserves, and community-run Wildlife Management Areas.  At over 50,000 km2, this combined area certainly makes it one of the most remote and important reservoirs of African megafauna.

Ruaha itself is a formally controlled conservation area – a classic national park.  It was expanded between 2006 and 2008 to bring the Usangu Wildlife Management area under strict protection.  Usangu had previously been used for cattle grazing, and other activities, but over-consumption (particularly of water) persuaded the authorities to exclude all agricultural activity.  This was not without controversy – people were removed from the area – but wildlife management areasremain a very important part of the park’s context, specifically on the southern border.

In a country where over 30% of the land is part of the protected wildlife estate, Wildlife Management Areas (WMAs) continue a national tradition of conservation at a local level.  Almost always adjacent to formally protected areas, where they operate as buffer zones, communities fish, keep bees and harvest thatch and other resources in WMAs. Funds generated are used for community-based initiatives such as schools.

ruaha giraffe sml

To the north and east, the state-run game reserves of Rungwa, Kizigo and Muhezi,catering largely to trophy hunters, effectively insulate Ruaha’s flora and fauna from human predation.

The tourist experience is terrific.  Cheaper to visit than the more famous northern reserves, the logisitics are also easier.  In fact, the road west from Dar es Salaam actually takes you through Mikumi National Park which could complete an awesome wildlife itinerary.

Most visitors stick to the Ruaha river itself where they will see plenty of game but there is much more to the park than that.


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Spotlight on Virunga

Posted on August 13th, 2014 in General,Spotlight on Parks by March Turnbull

Virunga National Park is one of the iconic reserves in Africa.   It’s famous as a beleaguered refuge for mountain gorillas and infamous for almost all of the challenges facing African wildlife conservation today.

Believed to be Africa’s oldest and most bio-diverse National Park, Virunga is located in the Eastern DRC, the very heart of the continent, straddling the great lakes region where central and East Africa meet.

Virunga faces too many of Africa’s most intractable problems.  Some are rooted in the Rwandan genocide, some in the promise of vast mineral resources.  What is absolutely certain is that if the the region was at peace with itself, this is a park that every single wildlife traveller would want to visit.

In May, Fred Pearce wrote about Virunga for Yale environment 360, probing the highly controversial decision to allow oil prospectors access to over 80% of the park.

Read the full original story , here


 Virunga on film. 

The story of Virunga has recently been captured in a hard-hitting documentary that reminds us that the park is defended by extraordinary people, sometimes under the most dangerous and difficult circumstance imaginable.  Read more stories from Virunga by visiting


 Virunga on MAPA’s Interactive Layer. 

Follow us on Twitter @maparpoject and contribute to our story campaign on using the hashtags #StoryOfAfricanParks and #WorldParksCongress.

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“Spotlight on Parks” series – can you help Africa at the World Parks Congress?

Posted on August 12th, 2014 in General,Spotlight on Parks by March Turnbull


IMG_0718 IMG_2136 serengeti north gate

The MAPA Project is dedicated to putting African wildlife conservation on the map – literally – and we are running a special campaign for the next few months. In November, Sydney will host the IUCN World Parks Congress. This meeting only happens once every 10 years and we want to make sure that Africa’s parks  get seen at a time when parks can no longer be seen as ecological islands to be isolated from humans.  We will be going to the Congress and will be doing everything we can to make sure that Africa’s parks get the attention they deserve.  The MAPA Project map is one tool we can use to do that.

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We are going to blog about as many parks as possible, between now and November. There is a huge diversity of conservation experience found in Africa’s parks – hopeful, worrisome, wondrous, social, ecological, economic.  And more questions than answers….. which ones are resilient, which ones are facing collapse, why? With over 500 African national parks on the MAPA interactive map, we want to tell as many of their stories as possible before the Congress starts.

  • The MAPA team will generate regular park stories until November.
  • We will repost from other organisations’ blogs wherever we can – tweet or email us to let us know what park blogs are out there!
  • We’re also hoping that some of you will tell us about your favourite parks so that they get a mention.   Can you submit a few words about the parks you have visited or worked in?  Description is good but a little background about its particular circumstances is even better.   What are its special challenges, does it protect very rare species, what does the future look like?     A couple of pictures and a few hundred words is all it needs – though more is more!

Either submit your story using this form or just send us an email with your words and pictures to march[at] If you can repost this on your own blog, or retweet the notification around the conservation & travel community that would be fantastic.

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Follow us on Twitter @mapaproject and contribute to our story campaign using the hashtags   #StoryOfAfricanParks and #WorldParksCongress.  We will also be posting to our Google+ and Facebook pages.

You can also follow the stories geographically (we do, after all, map Africa’s protected areas).  We’ve created an interactive map where you will be able to navigate to all the stories we blog in the coming weeks, see the stories that users submit, and, for the interactive experience, view photo spheres taken in parks.   


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On Jane Goodall and sharing reasons for hope

Posted on February 11th, 2014 in Featured Conservation,General,Google Geo Tools,Media by Alta

Here at the MAPA Project, we do our best, in our small way, to help conservation organisations and individuals make their work more visible and accessible. One – perhaps the main – reason we do this is because, in the words of Jane Goodall, “Only when people know will they care. Only when they care will they act. Only when they act can the world change”.

Indeed, when it comes to helping people know, and urging them to care and act,  few people have done as much as the incomparable Dr. Goodall.  A few months shy of her 80th birthday, she is still travelling around the world, telling her stories, and, like she can be seen doing here at the University of Cape Town’s Vice-Chancellor’s lecture just last week, spreading messages of hope.

In the lecture, Dr. Goodall expresses the hope that we can find a way of working with our minds and our our hearts in unison, a sentiment I found particularly sincere and fitting, having listened to a presentation  delivered by the Jane Goodall Institute’s vice president of conservation efforts, Lilian Pintea, at Google Earth Outreach’s Geo for Good user-summit in November last year. You might remember that we covered some of the highlights from this conference, including JGI’s  “Goodall, Gombe, and Google” tour, earlier this year.

A screenshot from the JGI “Goodall, Gombe and Google Tour”. Remember that you can create a story like this with your work – Software Advice has a very helpful write-up on how public benefit organisations can use this tool to craft their stories).

As much as Lillian’s talk, on that occasion, was about how JGI is leveraging technology to help them look after Chimpanzees in Africa, it was also a humble and heartfelt story of community, collaborative innovation  and throwing every tool at their disposal at understanding and improving life for chimpanzees and the complex social and ecological systems within which they live. A story of an organisation indeed working with their minds and hearts in unison.

Upon reflection it struck me that, in her UCT address, Jane doesn’t speak of “visions of hope” but “reasons for hope”.  Perhaps she can do this because this is something that she has, both in her personal capacity and through the work of the Jane Goodall Institute and the Root & Shoots programme, come to embody herself.

But don’t take my word for it – listen to her full speech in the video above, or go on a journey to Gombe to learn, through the story of one chimpanzee family, about some of the work JGI is doing with chimpanzees in Africa.

We know that Jane Goodall, the Jane Goodall Institute and Roots & Shoots aren’t the only “reasons for hope” in African conservation. We know that many of you have similar “heart and mind” stories . We would love to hear, and help tell, them.


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11 Geo for Goodnesses to help you on your mapping way

Posted on January 9th, 2014 in General,Google Geo Tool Blog Series,Google Geo Tools by Alta

In November last year we were fortunate enough to travel to Mountain View, California to attend the Geo for Good 2013 summit. Being all about helping organisations and individuals make their work more visible and accessible using mapping tools, we thought we’d share some of what we learned at the summit with you.

Instead of doing this is the traditional “blog” format, though, we felt it would be more appropriate to take you on a journey around the world (admittedly spending much of the time in “our world”, Africa) with this tour.

Enjoy, and happy 2014!


Geo for Good 2013. Photo: Google Earth Outreach.



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Go on a tour of Mkhambathi Nature Reserve in Google Earth

Posted on June 24th, 2013 in Featured Conservation,General,Google Geo Tools,Media,New Content by Alta

Protected areas are the cornerstone of global conservation efforts. They maintain functioning natural ecosystems, are set to act as refuges for biodiversity and maintain ecological processes that provide valuable ecosystem and cultural services to society.

Yet the idea of setting land aside for safeguarding and public enjoyment didn’t come about because of some cost-benefit or sustainability analysis or ecosystem service valuation. Rather, for hundreds of years, people who have advocated and worked to set aside special areas, be they indigenous communities in Ghana, or early advocates of the more modern concept of national parks, were driven to do so by a much simpler motivation: a love of nature.

To paraphrase the Senegalese naturalist Baba Moual: ultimately, we protect what we love.

However, whereas there is no shortage of places in Africa to love, we can only love what we know, or at least, know about. And in a world where our lives are increasingly disconnected and removed from nature, “to know” might require someone to tell us about our special places, what makes them so, and why they’re worth protecting.

One person who realizes the importance of this is photographer and writer Scott Ramsay.

In June 2011 Scott set off on his first “Year in the Wild”. In just over a year, he travelled to 31 of South Africa’s national parks and nature reserves. He interviewed rangers, community leaders, ecologists, activists, researchers and school kids, and translated what he had learned and discovered through photographs, blog posts, and magazine articles. His aim: to promote the appreciation of these wild places and to inspire people to go and visit them for themselves.

For best viewing, you can also play the tour in Google Earth. Download the KMZ file (17MB) for Google Earth by clicking on this link:

Being in the business of making conservation more visible and accessible ourselves, albeit through maps rather than photographs, we recently teamed up with Scott to create a virtual tour of the Wild Coast’s Mkhambathi Nature Reserve.  In combining the contextual power of Google Earth with Scott’s captivating photographs, we hoped that we could better share not only images, maps and information, but a little piece of what Scott calls “Mkhamathi’s special soul”.

In the video above you can see the result of that collaboration and, in three-and-a-half minutes, virtually travel to this little Wild Coast wonder. We hope that, through Scott’s photographs and the beautiful landscapes revealed in Google Earth, you will be sufficiently seduced by the cascading waterfalls, beach-trotting antelope, soaring vultures, rolling hills of grasslands, swamp forest patches and wild, pristine beaches  to go in search of ways you can experience Mkhambathi for yourself.

You might just find yourself falling in love with it.

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Shark spotting in Cape Town: mapping a social and conservation success story

Posted on May 8th, 2013 in Featured Conservation,General by Alta

Conservation is as much about people as it is about the environment. This is nowhere more true than in Cape Town, a city in the centre of biodiversity hotspot, where we are lucky enough to wake up to pristine beaches and panoramic views of our mountainous world wonder.

In fact, we have our own national park and marine protected area, right in the middle of our greater city. However, unlike with other national parks, where there are fences and camps and rules to stay in your car, we live in ours. We hike, run, walk and rock-climb our mountain, and we sail, kayak, swim and surf in our bays. As a consequence, sometimes, like when a spate of shark attacks occurred off the False Bay coast in 2004, we have to find new ways to live with some of the other species that call this very special place home.

The Shark Spotters programme is a now-celebrated example of what happens when a community rises to that challenge. If you had recently visited some of our False Bay beaches, you will know that there is a flag system in place to help water users know how safe it is to be in the ocean. Shark spotters, men and women from local communities that are employed full-time by the programme, are positioned with polarised sunglasses and binoculars at strategic elevated points along the coastline. When a shark is spotted, they radio this information to the beaches, where a white flag with a black shark is raised, and a siren sounded to warn bathers to get out of the water. The sightings are also live-tweeted, and immediately reported on their website.

The Shark Spotter flag warning system as explained on Muizenberg beach. Photo copyright Shark Spotters.

Shark spotting started on an ad-hoc basis in Muizenberg after the mentioned attacks of 2004, when avid surfer Greg Bertish asked car guards working in the area to keep a different kind of watch from the mountain, and warn him through the use of their cell phones of any sharks visible in the area. The programme eventually formalised, after Greg, together with (now) long-time shark spotter Rasta and Dave and Fiona Chudleigh sourced funds from the local surf community and local business, receiving enough sponsorship to install the first flagpole, signal system, siren alarm, and set up the first mountain watch.

The system was subsequently adopted by the Fish Hoek lifesaving club, followed soon after by the City of Cape Town and WWF’s involvement. Today, the project is supported by the City and the Save Our Seas Foundation as primary sponsors, and shark spotters are on duty 365 days a year at five of the sharkiest False Bay beaches, and at three more locations during peak seasons.

More than 1,300 sharks have been recorded since the programme started, most of these in summer, when there is both an increase of shark movement inshore, and water users in the Bay. To illustrate the extent of the programme and the work they do, we worked with the Shark Spotters Programme to create this map using Google Maps Engine lite,  an easy-to-use new tool for creating beautiful maps quickly. The map features the locations of Shark Spotters along the False Bay coastline, as well as all reported white shark sightings this past summer. Incidentally, you can learn how to make this map by taking this tutorial authored by Google Earth Outreach using the Shark Spotter data.



Innovation isn’t stopping anytime soon for this local success story. Whilst the spotters are still steadfastly spotting sharks from our mountain sentinels, the programme also continues to work with communities, businesses and government to raise funds for the programme, research shark behaviour off the False Bay and South African coast, educate and raise public  awareness, and find new ways to keep Cape Town bathers and the spectacular fish that swim of our shores, safe.


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Tools for visualizing conservation on private land

Posted on November 26th, 2012 in General,Get Involved!,Google Geo Tools,Workshops by Alta

Few people will argue that protected areas – parks, nature reserves and other natural areas – are essential for biodiversity conservation. They assist in reducing deforestation, habitat and species loss, and support the livelihoods of over a billion people, while, according to IUCN’s latest report on the state of protected areas, containing 15% of the world’s carbon stock.  The same report shows how organisations and governments are working hard to secure more of it: in the last 20 years global coverage of areas has increased from 8.8% to 12.7% for terrestrial areas, and from 0.9% to 4% for marine areas.

However important formal protected areas are, it’s also undeniable that securing land for conservation via formal proclamation is not going to be enough for us to achieve our biodiversity goals. In South Africa’s Western Cape, for example, most of the province’s biodiversity lies within private ownership, and it is unrealistic that this land might be purchased by the state for conversion to Protected Areas.

For this reason, many national and provincial authorities have taken to “mainstreaming” biodiversity conservation by involving private landowners through stewardship initiatives, biodiversity agreements and other incentive-based or voluntary programmes.

These areas, the conservation efforts on them, and their overall contribution to the biodiversity estate are, however, not always all that well known by the general public. Needless to say, we at MAPA are thrilled to be involved in an initiative to help change this by making private conservation land, and conservation efforts on them, more visible and accessible with the help of free online geo tools.

Together with Conservation at Work, the umbrella body for conservation on private land in the Western Cape, we have put together a few resources specifically geared towards individuals conservancy members, stewardship site managers and other individuals active in conservation on private conservation areas:

  • On the 7th and 8th of February 2013, we will be running one of our popular Google Geo workshops at the University of Cape Town. This (free) workshop will be specifically tailored for the private conservation sector, and will teach highly practical tools for mapping, visualizing and sharing information about conservation efforts on private land. No prior programming or GIS experience is required!  To find out more and apply, visit Applications close 15 December 2012!
  • In conjunction with this opportunity, we are also making available a mapping toolkit.


The “Tools for mapping conservation on private land” website comprises a collection of online mapping resources to help you map your conservation efforts and areas, visualize problems and successes on private land, and communicate these maps and visualizations to colleagues, stakeholders, or the world.

On the site, you can learn how to add your project to MAPA’s registry of African conservation, how to create a shareable map for your projects, how to add your private protected land to Google Maps using Google Map Maker, how to communicate and visualise conservation with free online tools like Google Earth, Google Maps and Fusion Tables, and about upcoming in-person training on Geo Tools.

Whether you run a private game reserve, are an active conservancy member, or run a research project on a stewardship site, we hope you will help these resources helpful! We will be adding more articles and links to the site in the near future – please let us know what you would like to see on this site, and help us help you make conservation on private land more visible and accessible.

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